Laird, S.A., R.P.Wynberg & R.J. McLain. 2014. Governance of NTFPs: ensuring effective laws and policies in practice. FAO Newsletter on Non-Wood Forest Products. Download PDF.  


Alexiades, M. N., et al. 2013. "The Missing Skill Set in Community Management of Tropical Forests." Conservation Biology 27(3): 635-637. Download PDF.

Laird, S.A. and R.P. Wynberg. 2013. Bioscience at a Crossroads: Access and Benefit Sharing in a Time of Scientific, Technological and Industry Change. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Implementing the Nagoya Protocol. Policy brief and fact sheet

The Pharmaceutical Industry.  Policy brief and fact sheet

The Botanicals Industry. Policy brief and fact sheet

Industrial Biotechnology. Policy brief and fact sheet

The Cosmetics Industry. Policy brief and fact sheet

Shackleton, S., C. Shackleton, and P. Shanley (eds). 2013. Non-timber forest products in the global context. Berlin: Springer.


Laird, S. and R. Wynberg. 2012. Diversity and change in the commercial use of genetic resources: Implications for access and benefit-sharing policy. Special Issue: Socio-economics and management of Bioprospecting, International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics, Vol 26 (3).

Laird, S. and R. Wynberg. 2012. Bioscience at a Crossroads: Implementing the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing in a Time of Scientific, Technological and Industry Change. The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Download PDF.

López, C., Quintanar-Isaias, A. & Vander Meeren, M. 2012. Mexican Bark Paper: Evidence of History of Tree Species Used and Their Fiber Characteristics. Economic Botany 66(2):138-148. Download from

Peters, C.M., M. Alexiades, and S.A. Laird. 2012. Train local experts to help conserve forests. Correspondence, Nature, Vol. 481, p. 443.

Rist, L., Shanley, P., Sunderland, T., Sheil, D., Ndoye, O., Liswanti, N., & Tieguhong, J. 2012. The impacts of selective logging on non-timber forest products of livelihood importance. Forest Ecology and Management,268: 57-69. Download PDF.

Shanley, P., et al. 2012.  "From conflict of use to multiple use: Forest management innovations by small holders in Amazonian logging frontiers." Forest Ecology and Management 268: 70-80. Download PDF.

Wynberg, R. and S. Laird. 2012. Governance of biological and genetic resources. In: Moving Forward With Forest Governance. ETFRN News, Issue No 53, April 2012, pp 46-52. Download PDF.


Arnold, M., B. Powell, P. Shanley and T.C.H. Sunderland 2011. Editorial: Forests, Biodiversity and food security. International Forestry Review 13(3): 259-264. Download PDF.

Cocks, M., López, C. &  Dold, M. 2011. Cultural Importance of Non-timber Forest Products: Opportunities they Pose for Bio-Cultural Diversity in Dynamic Societies. In Shackleton, S., Shackleton, C. and Shanley, P. (editors) Non-Timber Forest Products in the Global Context. Tropical Forest 7. Springer-Verlag. pp 107-129. Download PDF.

Laird, SA et al. 2011. The interweave of people and place: biocultural diversity in migrant and indigenous livelihoods around Mount Cameroon. International Forestry Review 13(3): 275-293. Download PDF.

Laird, SA, Wynberg, R and McLain, R. 2011. Chapter 11: Regulating complexity: the governance of non-timber forest products. In: Shackleton, S, Shackleton, C, and Shanley, P (editors). Non-timber forest products in the global context. Springer-Verlag, Amsterdam. Download PDF.

Márquez-Cruz, U., López, C. & Negreros-Castillo, P. 2011. Una especie multiusos del trópico mexicano Trema micrantha (L.) Blume. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Ciencias 101: 16-22. Download from

Shanley, P., et al. 2011. "Brazil's social movement, women and forests: a case study from the National Council of Rubber Tappers." International Forestry Review 13.(2): 233-244. Download PDF.

Shanley, P., M. Cymerys, M. Serra and G. Medina 2011. Fruit Trees and Useful Plants in Amazonian Life. Rome: FAO-CIFOR-PPI. Download PDF.


Laird, S.A., McLain, R., and Wynberg, R. (editors). 2010 Wild Product Governance: Finding Policies that Work for Non-timber Forest Products. Earthscan, London, 393 pp.

Melo da Silva, T., F.C. da Silva Jardim, M. da Serra Silva, P. Shanley. 2010. O Mercado de amêndoas de Dipteryx odorata (Cumaru) no estado do Pará. Floresta 40(3):603-614. Download PDF/Descargar PDF.

Shanley, P. et al. 2010. Frutíferas e Plantas Úteis na Vida Amazônica. Segunda Edição. Belem, Brasil: CIFOR. Download PDF.


Cruz, M, M., López, C. y Neyra, L. (compiladoras) 2009. Artesanías y Medio Ambiente. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO / Fondo Nacional para el Fomento de las Artesanías FONART.  México. Download PDF/Descargar PDF.

Laird, S.A., R. Wynberg and R. McLain. 2009. Wild Product Governance: laws and policies for sustainable and equitable non-timber forest product use. A policy brief produced by United Nations University, the Center for International Forestry Research, People and Plants International, the Institute for Culture and Ecology, and the University of Cape Town, October 2009. Download PDF.

Serra, M., P. Shanley and T. Melo 2009. Ecologia e Manejo do Amapá Amargo Parahancornia fasciculata (Poir) Benoist. Download PDF/Descargar PDF.

Shackleton, S., Shackleton, C., Wynberg, R., Sullivan, C., Leakey, R., Mander, M., McHardy, T., den Adel, S., Botelle, A., du Plessis, P., Lombard, C., Laird, S.A., Cunningham, T., and O’Regan, D. 2009. Livelihood trade-offs in the commercialisation of multiple-use NTFPs: lessons from marula  (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) in southern Africa. In: Non-timber forest products in India, ATREE Press.

Shanley, P. and C. López 2009. Out of the loop: Why research rarely reaches policy makers and the public and what can be done. Biotropica41(5):535-544. Download PDF.

Sunderland, T., J. Sunderland-Groves, P. Shanley and B. Campbell 2009. Bridging the gap: how can information access and exchange between conservation biologists and field practitioners be improved for better conservation outcomes? Biotropica 41(5): 549-554. Download PDF.

Wynberg, R. and Laird, S.A. 2009. Chapter 5: Bioprospecting, Access and Benefit-Sharing: Revisiting the “Grand Bargain”. In: Wynberg, R., Chennells, R., and Schroeder, D. (editors). Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit-sharing. Learning from the San-Hoodia Case. Springer, Berlin.


Cunningham, A. B., P. Shanley and S. Laird. 2008. Health, Habitats and Medicinal Plant Use. In: Carol J. Pierce Colfer (editor), Human Health and Forests: a global overview of issues, practice and policy. Earthscan, London, pp 35-62.

Laird, S.A. and Wynberg, R. 2008. Bioprospecting: securing a piece of the pie. World Conservation, January 2008, 28-29. Download PDF.

Laird, S.A., C. Monagle and S. Johnston. 2008. Queensland Biodiscovery Collaboration: The Griffith University AstraZeneca Partnership for Natural Products Discovery; an Access and Benefit Sharing Case Study. United Nations University and the Australian Government. UNU-IAS, Yokohama, Japan. Download PDF.

Laird, S.A. and Wynberg, R. 2008. Access and benefit sharing in practice: trends in partnerships across sectors, Volumes I, II and III. CBD Technical Series 38, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.

Shanley, P., A. Pierce, S. Laird and D. Robinson. 2008. Beyond Timber: Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia, 144pp. Download PDF.

Shanley, P. et al. 2008. Más Allá de la Madera: Certificación y Manejo de Productos Forestales No Maderables. People and Plants PPI/CIFOR/Forest Trends/USAID/European CommissionEC/IFAD/CITRO. Download PDF

Shanley, P. et al. 2008. Receitas Sem Palavras. Plantas Medicinais da Amazônia. Belem. CIFOR-PPI. Download PDF.


Laird, S.A., G.L. Awung, and R.J. Lysinge. 2007. Cocoa farms in the Mt. Cameroon region: biological and cultural diversity in local livelihoods. Biodiversity Conservation 16:2401-2427. Download PDF.

Shackleton, S., Shanley P. and O. Ndoye. 2007. Invisible but Viable: Recognizing local markets in non-timber forest products. International Forestry Review vol. 9 (3): 697-712.

Wynberg, R.P. and Laird, S.A. 2007. Bioprospecting: Tracking the Policy Debate, Environment  49 (10) (December 2007): 20-32. Download PDF.

Wynberg, R.P. and Laird, S.A 2007. Less is often more: governance of a non-timber forest product, marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) in southern Africa. International Forestry Review 9(1): 475-490. Download PDF.

Wynberg, R., Taylor, M., and Laird, S.A. 2007. Access and Benefit Sharing in South Africa: An Analysis of Legal Frameworks and Agreements. Environmental Evaluation Unit, University of Cape Town, in collaboration with Cheadle, Thomson & Haysom and People and Plants International. Prepared for the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism on behalf of the Southern African Development Community Biodiversity Support Programme. June, 2007, Report no: 1/07/274. 

Laird, S.A., Johnston, S. and Wynberg, R. 2007. An international dialogue for informing access and benefit sharing. Business 2010 Newsletter 2(5).


Colfer, C.J.P., Dounias, E., Goloubinoff, M., López, C. and Sunderlin, W. 2006. Understanding Forests-People Links: The Voice of Social Scientists. En: Cernea, M., y Kassam, A. (editors) Researching the Culture in Agri-Culture: Social Research for International Agricultural Development. CABI Publishers. pp. 100-116.

Laird, S. A. and R. Wynberg. 2006. The Commercial Use of Biodiversity: An Update on Current Trends in Demand for Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing, and Industry Perspectives on ABS Policy and Implementation. UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/4/INF/5. The Secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada.

Laird, S.A., R. Wynberg and S. Johnston. 2006. Recent Trends in Biological Prospecting. Paper presented by UNEP to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting XXIX, 2006.

López, C., Shanley, P. and Cuba-Cronkleton, M. (editors) 2006. Riquezas del Bosque: frutas, resinas, remedios y artesanías en América Latina. CIFOR / People and Plants PPI / Centro de Investigaciones Tropicales CITRO/The Christensen Foundation/Overbrook Foundation La Paz, Bolivia. 178 p. Download PDF/Descargar PDF

Shanley, P. 2006. Science for the Poor: How One Woman Challenged Researchers, Ranchers, and Loggers in Amazonia . Ecology and Society 11 (2): 28. [online] URL:

Shanley, P. and G. Medina. 2006. Connecting through Culture: transforming forest research and extension for rural and urban relevance in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of IUFRO, Working Party S6.06-03 Extension, 7th Symposium Communication Strategies for Multiple Partner Involvement in Forestry Extension.  IUFRO symposium, also available as an electronic version in the IBAF CNR web site at the link:


López, C., Chanfón Küng, S. and Segura Warnholtz, G. (editors) 2005. La riqueza de los bosques mexicanos: mas allá de la madera. Experiencias de comunidades rurales. CIFOR/Centro de Educación y Capacitación para el Desarrollo Sustentable CECADESU- SEMARNAT/Programa de Desarrollo Forestal Comunitario PROCYMAF II-SEMARNAT/Instituto Nacional de Ecología INE/SEMARNAT. 330 p. Download PDF/Descargar PDF.

Santos Jiménez, V., Mas Kantún, P., López, C. and Snook, L. 2005. El manejo forestal y la caoba en los ejidos de la Zona Maya, México. Desarrollo histórico, condiciones actuales y perspectivas. Revista de CATIE, Turrialaba Costa Rica. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente: 44: 27-36.

Shanley, Patricia, Alan Pierce, and Sarah Laird. 2005. Beyond Timber: Certification of Non-Timber Forest Products. Forest Trends, Washington DC.  Reprinted as: Shanley, Patricia, Alan Pierce and Sarah Laird. 2006. Alem da Madeira: certificao de produtos florestais nao-madeireiros. Centro de Pesquisa Florestal Internacional (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. 153 pp.

Laird, Sarah A. 2005. Medicinal Plants in International Trade: Conservation and Equity Issues. In: Ethnopharmacology, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO, EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK. 13 pp.

Laird, S.A., A.R. Pierce, and S.F. Schmitt. 2005. Sustainable Raw Materials in the Botanicals Industry: Constraints and Opportunities. In: Proceedings WOCAMP III, Vol. 2: Conservation, Cultivation, and Sustainable Use of MAPS. Eds. A Jatisatienr, T Paratasilpin, S Elliott, V Anusarnsunthorn, D Wedge, LE Craker and ZE Gardner. Acta Hort. 676, ISHS 2005. pp 111-117.

Wollenberg, L., Anderson, J. and López, C. 2005. Though all things differ. Pluralism as a basis for cooperation in forests. CIFOR, Indonesia. 101 p.

Alexiades, M.N. , G. Huajohuajo, M. Huajohuajo, R. Mamío, R. Quioshe, D. Peluso, V. Pesha and G. Tirina.  2004.  Ejabawejakiji ebiohoneki shemeño Ese Ejaha sowiho. Para conocer los remedios del monte.  Puerto Maldonado: FENAMAD.


Alexiades, M. and P. Shanley. 2004. (eds.) Productos Forestales, Medios de Subsistencia y Conservacion. Vol 3, America Latina. CIFOR, Indonesia.

Garcia-Fernandez, C. and P. Shanley. 2004. Forests and People: safeguarding the natural heritage in Brazilian Amazon in Bois et Forets des Tropiques vol. 280, pg(s) 104-105.

Lopez, C. and P. Shanley. 2004. (eds.) Riches of the Forest: for Life, Health and Spirit in Africa. CIFOR, Indonesia.

Lopez, C. and P. Shanley. 2004. (eds.) Riches of the Forest: Foods, Spices, Crafts and Resins of Asia. CIFOR, Indonesia.

Shanley, P. and G. Gaia. 2004. A ‘fruta do pobre’ se torna lucrative: a Endoplerua uchi Cuatrec. Em areas manejadas próximo a Belém, Brasil. Pages 219-240 in Alexiades, M. and Shanley, P. 2004. (eds.) Productos Forestales, Medios de Subsistencia y Conservacion. Vol 3, America Latina. CIFOR, Indonesia.

Shanley, P. and N.A. Rosa. 2004. Eroding Knowledge: an Ethnobotanical Inventory in Eastern Amazonia’s Logging Frontier, Economic Botany 58 (2): 135-160

ten Kate, K and Sarah A Laird. 2004. Bioprospecting Agreements and Benefit Sharing with Local Communities. in: JM Finger and P. Schuler (eds.), Poor People’s Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank, Washington DC. pp. 133-158.

Quintanar-Isaías, A., Zárate-Castrejón, J. L., López,  C. and Salgado-Ugarte, I. H. 2004. Anatomía e histoquímica de la corteza de cinco especies de Moraceae. Revista del Instituto Politécnico Nacional IPN, México. Polibotánica 17: 15-38.

Shanley, Patricia and Sarah A. Laird. 2004. Giving back: making research results relevant to local groups and conservation. APA News: Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Newsletter No. 24, July 2004, The Philippines. pp. 13-16.


Laird, Sarah A. and Rachel Wynberg. 2003. Biodiversity prospecting & access and benefit-sharing: An introductory primer. IUCN Pretoria, South Africa. 40 pp.

Laird, Sarah, Sam Johnston, Rachel Wynberg, Estherine Lisinge, and Dagmar Lohan. 2003. Biodiversity Access and Benefit-Sharing Policies for Protected Areas: An Introduction. United Nations University/Institute of Advanced Studies Report. UNU/IAS, Yokohama. 37 pp.

Laird, S.A. and K. ten Kate. 2003. Forest Biodiversity Prospecting. In: J. Burley, J. Evans and JA Youngquist (eds.),  Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences. Elsevier, Oxford UK. pp.538-541.

Pierce, A.R. and S.A. Laird. 2003. In search of comprehensive standards for non-timber forest products in the botanicals trade. International Forestry Review 5(2). pp 138-147.

 Shanley, P. 2003. Beyond timber: certification of non-timber forest products ETFRN News Special issue. (39-40): 65-67.

Shanley, P. 2003. Chainsaws in the Drugstore. Appropriate Technology vol. 30 No. 3: 60-63

Shanley, P. and L. Luz. 2003. Eastern Amazonian Medicinals: Marketing,  Use and Implications of Forest Loss. BioScience.vol 53 (6) 573-584

Wollenberg, E. Campbell, B. Shackleton, S. Edmunds, D. and P. Shanley. 2003.  Collaborative Management of Forests. In Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio (eds.), Collective Action and Property Rights.  2020 Focus 11.  Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Wynberg, R.P., S.A. Laird, S. Shackleton, M. Maunder, C. Shackleton, P. DuPlessis, S. Den Adel, R.R.B. Leakey, A. Botelle, C. Lombard, C. Sullivan, T. Cunningham, and D. O’Reagan. 2003. Marula Commercialisation for Sustainable and Equitable Livelihoods. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 13 (3), pp 203-215.


Laird, S.A. (editor)  2002. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice. A WWF/UNESCO/Kew People and Plants Manual. Earthscan, London. 504 pp. DOWNLOAD PDF.

Shanley, T., A. Pierce, S.A. Laird, and A. Guillen. 2002. Tapping the Green Market: The Management and Certification of Non-Timber Forest Products. Earthscan, London. 456 pp. DOWNLOAD PDF.

Laird, S.A. and K. ten Kate. 2002. Linking Biodiversity Prospecting and Forest Conservation. in Pagiola, S., J. Bishop, and N. Landell-Mills, Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation. Earthscan, London. pp. 151-172.

Laird, S.A. and A.R. Pierce. 2002. Strategies to Promote Sustainable and Ethical Raw Material Sourcing in the Botanicals Industry: Results from an Industry Survey. Medicinal Plant Conservation, Volume 8, 1 June 2002. IUCN Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. pp. 9-14.

Laird, S.A. and A.R. Pierce.  2002.  Promoting Sustainable and Ethical Botanicals: Strategies to Improve Commercial Raw Material Sourcing.  Rainforest Alliance, New York (available online at:

Pierce, A.R., S.A. Laird & R. Malleson.  2002.  Annotated Collection of Guidelines, Standards, and Regulations for Trade in Non-Timber Forest Products and Botanicals. Rainforest Alliance, New York (available online at:

Shackleton, S.E., Wynberg, R.P., Sullivan, C.A., Shackleton, C.M., Leakey, R.R.B., Mander, M., McHardy, T., den Adel, S., Botelle, A., du Plessis, P., Lombard, C., Laird, S.A., Cunningham, A.B., Combrinck, A. and O’Regan, D.P. 2002. Marula commercialisation for sustainable and equitable livelihoods: Synthesis of a southern African case study. 51pp.

Shanley, P. and G. Gaia. 2002. Equitable Ecology: collaborative learning for local benefit in Eastern Amazonia. 2002. Agricultural Systems 73: 83-97.

Shanley P., Pierce, A., Laird, S. and A. Guillen. (eds) 2002. Tapping the Green Market: Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products. Earthscan, London.

Shanley, P. Luz, L., and I. Swingland, 2002. The Faint Promise of a Distant Market: a survey of Belem’s trade in non-timber forest products. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 615-636. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands.

ten Kate, K. and S.A. Laird. 2002. Implications of the CBD for Health and Biopharma. The United Nations University and Institute for New Technologies – Technology Policy Briefs. volume 1, issue 3, pp 10-12.

Wynberg, R., Laird, S., Botha, J., den Adel, S. and McHardy, T. 2002. Policy Issues with Regard to the Management, Use and Commercialisation of Marula. DFID report. 62pp.


Laird, S.A., E. Egbe, and E. Lisinge. 2001. Non-Wood Forest Products in Central Africa: Exploring the Legal and Policy Framework within Cameroon. Proceedings of the Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) Non-Timber Forest Products in Central Africa: Research Results Workshop, 18-20 July 2000,  Limbe Botanic Garden, Cameroon.

Laird, S.A. and T.M. Mahop. 2001. The Limbe Botanic and Zoological Gardens Policy on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. The Limbe Botanic Garden, South West Province, Cameroon.

Laird, S.A. 2001. The Convention on Biological Diversity: changing ethical and legal frameworks for biodiversity research and prospecting. Unasylva, Vol 52, Number 206. FAO, Rome.


Shanley P. and Laird, S. 2001. Giving Back: Making research results relevant to local groups and conservation in S. Laird, Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: equitable partnerships in practice. Earthscan, London.

Laird, S.A., A.B. Cunningham, and E.Lisinge. 2000.  One in ten thousand? The Cameroon Case of Ancistrocladus korupensis. in: C. Zerner (ed.) People , Plants and Justice :The Politics of Nature Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York.

Shanley, P. 1999. Extending Ecological Research to Meet Local Needs: a Case from Brazil in ed. T. Sunderland, The Significance of Non Wood Forest Products in West Africa. FAO, Rome.

Shanley, P. and J. Galvão. 1999. Invisible Income: The ecology and economics of non-timber forest resources in Amazonian forests in UNEP, Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. Intermediate Technology Publications, Denmark.

Shanley, P. 1999. Where are the Fruit Trees? Obstacles and Opportunities in the Marketing of Forest Fruits. Natural History, New York.

Shanley, P. 1999. Equity-Based Environmental Education along an Amazon Tributary. Proceedings, Global Environmental Education and Communication Conference, National Association of Environmental Education.

Shanley, P., J. Galvão and L. Luz. 1997. Limits and Strengths of Local Participation: a Case Study in Eastern Amazonia. IIED, PLA notes 28: 64-70.

Cymerys, M., P. Shanley and L. Luz. 1997. Quando a Caça Conserva a Matá. Ciencia Hoje (22) 129: 22 - 24.

Elisabetsky, E. and P. Shanley. 1994. Ethnopharmacology in the Brazilian Amazon. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 64: 201-214.



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